Anatomy

Lotus japonicus Handbook by Antonio J. Márquez, J. Stougaard, M. Udvardi, M. Parniske,

By Antonio J. Márquez, J. Stougaard, M. Udvardi, M. Parniske, H. Spaink, G. Saalbach, J. Webb, M. Chiurazzi, A.J. Márquez

Legumes are extremely important vegetation enjoying a important position in organic study. they seem to be a key part of sustainable agricultural structures as a result of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and different important symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. stories on lots of the significant leguminous plants are hampered via huge genome sizes and different dangers that have hindered the isolation and characterisation of genes with very important roles in legume biology and agriculture. as a result Lotus japonicus used to be selected as a version species for legume examine a few ten years in the past. considering that then, many teams all over the world have followed Lotus as a version and feature built a variety of assets and protocols to facilitate simple and utilized study in this species. This guide represents the 1st attempt to bring together simple descriptions and techniques for examine in Lotus, together with symbiotic strategies, phone and molecular biology protocols, practical genomics, mutants, gene tagging and genetic research, transformation and opposite genetic research, basic and secondary metabolism, and an exhaustive replace of the clinical literature on hand in this plant.

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Schauser L, Handberg K, Sandal N, Stiller J, Thykaer T, Pajuelo E, Nielsen A, and Stougaard J. (1998) Symbiotic mutants deficient in nodule establishment after T-DNA transformation of Lotus japonicus. Molecular General Genetics 259, 414-423. Schauser L, Roussis A, Stiller J, and Stougaard J. (1999) A plant regulator controlling development of symbiotic root nodules. Nature 402, 191-195. Schultze and Kondorosi (1998) Regulation of symbiotic root nodule development. Annual Review of Genetics 32, 33-57.

2002). BREEDING OF LOTUS SPECIES Among the positive attributes of forage Lotus for pasture use we can find: they have high nutritive value but do not induce bloat when direct-grazed, they can persist through reseeding or rhizomes and they tolerate infertile, acidic, drought or wet soil conditions. The improvements of Lotus species intend to make them more persistent, reliable, and productive. A great deal of genetic variation exists in Lotus species for further genetic improvement. Variation for agronomic and herbage quality characteristics including plant decumbency, winter injury, herbage dry mass, and in vitro digestible dry matter exists among different accessions.

Clearly, studies on L. japonicus are likely to prove invaluable both to understanding the basic biology of legumes and to improve leguminous crops that have large and/or polyploid genomes. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors want to thank M Udvardi for critical reading of the manuscript. 19 REFERENCES Arimura GI, Ozawa R, Kugimiya S, Takabayashi J, and Bohlmann J. (2004) HerbivoreInduced Defense Response in a Model Legume: Two-Spotted Spider Mites Induce Emission of (E)-{beta}-Ocimene and Transcript Accumulation of (E)-{beta}-Ocimene Synthase in Lotus japonicus.

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