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A to Z of Physicists. Notable Scientists [biographies] by Darryl J. Leiter

By Darryl J. Leiter

One other very important survey within the remarkable Scientists sequence, A to Z of Physicists focuses not just at the lives and personalities of these profiled, but additionally on their examine and contributions to the sector. a desirable and significant component to this quantity is the eye paid to the hindrances that girls and minority physicists have conquer to arrive their own pursuits. via incidents, quotations, and images, the entries painting anything of the human face that is usually misplaced in books on technological know-how and scientists. A to Z of Physicists beneficial properties a hundred and fifty entries and 50 black-and-white images. Culturally inclusive and spanning the entire variety of physicists from precedent days to the current day, this is often a terrific source for college students and common readers drawn to the background of physics or the numerous features of the non-public lives of vital physicists.

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Blackett continued to develop the cloud chamber and in 1932, with a young Italian physicist, Guiseppe Occhialini, designed the countercontrolled cloud chamber, a brilliant invention in which cosmic rays could photograph themselves. The counter-controlled cloud chamber was activated when simultaneous discharges occurred as the result of an electrically charged particle’s passing through two geiger counters, placed above and below the cloud chamber. This made the cloud chamber vastly more efficient and reduced the huge number of required observations.

Further Reading Knoll, Glenn Frederick. Radiation Detection and Measurement. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. ᨳ Becquerel, Antoine-Henri (1852–1908) French Experimentalist (Radioactivity) Antoine-Henri Becquerel changed the course of modern physics by his accidental discovery in 1896 of natural radioactivity, the spontaneous emission of radiation by a material. For this achievement he shared the 1903 Nobel Prize with Pierre Curie and MARIE CURIE, who further investigated Becquerel’s discovery.

In 1916, the University of Copenhagen appointed him to the chair of theoretical physics. When he made known his plans to return to “more ideal” research conditions in England, the Danish university created the Institute of Theoretical Physics for him (now Bohr, Niels Henrik David 39 the Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics). In 1921, a year before he received the Nobel Prize in physics, he was appointed its director, a post he would retain for the rest of his life. The institute became a mecca for theoretical physicists, who traveled from all over the world to debate the meaning of the new physics, and the birthplace of what came to be called the Copenhagen school.

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